Les travailleurs agricoles migrants en Italie du Sud Entre incompréhension, instrumentalisation et solidarités locales Romain Filhol (Hommes et migrations 2013)
Dans le Guardian du 12/3 https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/mar/12/slavery-sicily-farming-raped-beaten-exploited-romanian-womenun article éloquent sur les formes d'esclavage agraire supporté par des migrants roumains travaillant dans des fermes siciliennes; on a là un exemple du cumul des inégalités, en et entre pays développés, inégalités liées aux migrations, au genre, dans un monde rural qui est traditionnellement une région pauvre d'Italie. (on peut aussi consulter: http://www.courrierinternational.com/article/2014/11/13/le-calvaire-des-esclaves-roumaines
ou encore plus largement:
Les travailleurs agricoles migrants en Italie du Sud. Entre incompréhension, instrumentalisation et solidarités locales
extraits du Guardian:
A vulnerable female workforce
Police say they believe that up to 7,500 women, the majority of whom are Romanian, are living in slavery on farms across the region. Guido Volpe, a commander in the carabinieri military police in Sicily, told the Observer that Ragusa was the centre of exploitation on the island.
“These women are working as slaves in the fields and we know they are blackmailed to have sex with the owners of the farms or greenhouses because of their psychological subjugation,” he says. “It is not easy to investigate or stop this from happening, as the women are mostly too afraid to speak out.” (...)
“Where I come from in Romanian Moldavia, nobody has a job,” says Bolos, as she nurses her five-month-old daughter in a dark warehouse that is now her home on another farm in Ragusa province. “The average salary there is €200 a month. Here you can make much more, even if you need to suffer.”
The Observer spoke to 10 Romanian women working on farms in Ragusa. All detailed routine sexual assault and exploitation, including working 12-hour days in extreme heat with no water, non-payment of wages and being forced to live in degrading and unsanitary conditions in isolated outbuildings. Their working days often include physical violence, being threatened with weapons and being blackmailed with threats to their children and family.
Local economy survives on migrant labour
Opportunities for casual farm work in Ragusa are abundant. In recent years, Italian exports of fresh fruit and vegetables have grown and are now worth some €366m a year. Much of this produce is grown in the 5,000 farms across Ragusa province.
Italian agriculture has for many years been heavily reliant on migrant labour. One farming group, Coldiretti, estimates that about 120,000 migrants are working in the sector in southern Italy.
After years of damaging allegations of exploitation and a resulting clampdown by the Italian government, Sicilian farmers who once filled their greenhouses with undocumented migrants and refugees arriving by boat have turned to migrant workers from within the EU.
“Greenhouse owners are now afraid of being prosecuted for facilitating illegal migration by hiring undocumented migrants,” says Giuseppe Scifo, a union leader for CGIL, Italy’s largest union. “So the new targets for exploitation are EU citizens, who are willing to accept low wages because of the desperate situation in their home countries.”
Gianfranco Cunsolo, president of Coldiretti in Ragusa, says he has no choice but to pay low wages.
“The exploitation of workers in Ragusa is also the consequence of EU policies,” he says. “I don’t want to justify the actions of farmers and greenhouse owners who pay low wages to migrant workers, but these people often don’t feel they have any alternative if they are to compete with other European markets.